Monastery of Arkadi
It is one of the Eastern Orthodox Monasteries underlining the catholicity and universality of the Church. Each year the Monastery receives and hosts many visitors and pilgrims from all over the world, from distant civilizations. Here are blended many languages, cultures, traditions, history and polymorphism. Nothing from the above can impede the faith unity, the catholicity of the orthodox spirit, the universality of the ecclesiastical testimony. Arkadi Monastery is located near the village Amnatos, 23km east of Rethymno. It is built at an altitude of 500m, on a fertile plateau with olive groves, vineyards, pine, cypress and oak trees. Around the monastery there are several picturesque chapels and from there starts the beautiful Arkadi gorge. The exact date of the foundation of the monastery is not known, but it is believed that it was actually founded by Byzantine Emperor Arkadios in the 12th century. According to another version, the name is taken after a monk called Arkadios, who first founded the monastery. Moreover, the monastery was called Tsanli Manastir by the Turks (i.e. beneficiary bell), as the Arkadi monastery was the only Cretan monastery that had the right to ring its bells. The initial church of the monastery was dedicated to Saint Constantine and some ruins of it are preserved in the northwestern part of the monastery enclosure. Arkadi is surrounded by massif walls that made it impregnable from the enemies and its rich fortification attracted the rebellious Cretans. Many Turkish and Greek documents are referring to the life and the adventures of the monastery, that provided educational, national, ethical and monetary support for the locals. Arkadi is certainly the most historic monastery of Crete and has become the most sacred symbol of the Struggle of the Cretans for Freedom. It is the theater of the tragic battle of 1866, which opened the way for the liberation of the island in 1898. Indeed, UNESCO has designated Arkadi as a European Freedom Monument. During the Turkish occupation of Crete, the Cretans made many revolutionary movements, such as the Revolution of Daskalogiannis in 1770, of the Janissaries in 1821, against the Egyptians in 1822, of Gramvousa in 1828, of Chairetis in 1811. They all failed but strengthened Cretan morale and hatred against the Turks. The Revolution that opened the way for the Liberation of Crete was the Revolution of 1866, which, combined with the revolutions of 1878 and 1895, put an end to the Turkish Occupation in 1898. The Cretan Revolution of 1866 brought a blow against the Turkish Empire, caused significant economic damage and stultified its military prestige. The Monastery of Arkadi from the first moment of the Revolution was the center of the Cretan struggle. On May 1, 1866, 1500 Cretan rebels gathered under the leadership of Hadji Michalis Giannaris and elected representatives of the various provinces of Crete. As president of the Rethymno Commission, was elected the abbot of Arkadi Monastery, Gabriel Marinakis.